The multiplicity of zoom lens can be found as follows. To calculate the multiplicity is necessary to divide the maximum focal length at least. For example, your zoom lens has two extreme values Focal Length 18mm - 200mm. So, divide 200 by 18 - get ≈ 11. Thus, the multiplicity of the zoom lens is 11X. But this does not mean that the lens increases the image 11 times, the zoom ratio is calculated by other means.▲
The zoom lens (zoom) - a lens in which you can change the focal length, for example, the focal length of 18mm can be quickly move to the focal length of 200mm, without changing the lens. Zoom lenses are very convenient to use, but not all of them have a constant aperture, which eliminates this convenience. For me, the perfect lens - a zoom lens with a constant aperture 1,4f - 2,8f, and a focal length of 50mm-300mm.▲
The zoom lens with a constant aperture - a lens in which the diaphragm does not change automatically when you change the focal length. For example, if a zoom lens, you set the aperture 1: 2,8f at a focal distance of 18mm, then the focal length to 200mm - diaphragm remains 1: 2,8f. These lenses retain luminosity at all focal lengths. There are such zoom lenses at times more than the fixed lenses, and ten times more zoom lenses with automatically adjustable aperture, at the same focal length.▲
Fixed lens - a lens with a fixed focal length, for example - 50mm. As a rule, these lenses provide high quality of the original image due to the smaller number of optical elements, and the ability to use the smallest aperture at different scales of magnification. Fixed lenses are characterized as lenses with high aperture, and the cost of these lenses can be several times higher zoom lenses with the same focal length.▲
During image postprocessing in the editor Photoshop, I recommend handle photo in the color depth of 16-bit. How Come? Because in this mode stores more information about color and its quantity as compared with the depth of color 8-bit. Hence, the greater the depth of color, the color is better processed in the penumbra, since the number of colors more. For this reason, I recommend to write files when shooting in RAW format, since he (for default) writes a 16-bit color depth. By the way, Jpeg format records all information in 8 bits. The choice is yours.▲
I recommend shooting in RAW. As this format provides great photo opportunities in the further processing of files in an image editor, such as color correction, white balance correction, and so on. D.
Jpeg format deprived features such as recording in this format, the camera automatically processes all information and records in 8-bit mode.
files recorded in RAW format are not processed by the camera, and recorded as it is in 16-bit mode. Shoot in RAW, and you will be happy.
mode shutter lag - it is such a mode in which before opening the shutter curtains, the mirror is raised half a second earlier, to reduce vibration from cotton mirror of the camera body at the time of exposure. You can use this mode when microfilming, when using slow shutter speeds and so on. Using a tripod. From a practical point of view, to use this mode when fast moving scenes and continuous shooting does not make sense.▲
Self-timer mode - is a mode where you can manually set the shutter lag camera. Typically, this mode is used when shooting self-portraits, pre-setting the camera on a tripod.▲
The resolution of the lens - is the ability of the optical system of the lens to take and pass on the light-sensitive material as much as possible information. The more detail is able to pass an object, the higher the resolving power. Resolution of the lens is checked by means of special world. The more distinct fragments on the world fails to see, the greater the resolving power of the lens.▲
Animation landscape - is a landscape in which there is a living entity directly, such as a person, animal or insect. It is believed that animate the landscape can be so without direct presence in it of a living being, but which in any way resembles his presence, linking landscape with some living creature, see example.▲